QUESTION: Can COBRA be extended?
ANSWER: Before answering the question, it’s best to explore how long qualified beneficiaries are entitled to COBRA. Depending on the qualifying event (QE), the maximum coverage period can be anywhere between 18 and 36 months.
Where a loss of coverage is a result of an employee’s termination of employment (other than by reason of gross misconduct) or reduction in hours, qualified beneficiaries are entitled to continue coverage for a maximum of 18 months.
Where a loss of coverage is a result of any of the following, qualified beneficiaries are entitled to continue coverage for a maximum of 36 months:
- Death of a covered employee;
- Divorce or legal separation of a covered employee from the covered employee’s spouse;
- A covered employee becoming entitled to Medicare benefits; and
- A dependent child ceasing to be a dependent child under the terms of the health plan.
Where a loss of coverage is a result of an employee’s termination of employment (other than by reason of gross misconduct) or a reduction in hours and a qualified beneficiary is determined by the Social Security Administration to be disabled before, at or within 60 days of the date of the qualifying event, all qualified beneficiaries within that family are entitled to COBRA for a maximum period of 29 months. To benefit from this extension, any qualified beneficiary within the family must notify the plan administrator as required by the reasonable procedures established by the plan administrator.
If the employee was enrolled in Medicare prior to his or her termination or reduction in hours (for example, retirement), the employee is entitled to 18 months of COBRA continuation coverage. Where the spouse or dependent is covered under the plan on the day before the employee’s termination or reduction in hours, the spouse and dependent are entitled to COBRA continuation coverage for the longer of:
- 18 months from the date of the employee’s termination or reduction in hours; or
- 36 months from the date the employee became enrolled in Medicare.
As outlined, the length of the maximum coverage period depends on the type of qualifying event that has occurred. There are situations where the maximum coverage period can be extended or terminated early.
There are several ways that the standard maximum coverage period can be extended. The following chart provides a summary of the available methods.
|Disability Extension Rule||Extends 18-month period to 29 months for all related QBs|
|Multiple Qualifying Event Rule||Extends 18-month coverage period to 36 months for spouse and children when a second qualifying event (such as divorce from or death of the covered employee or loss of dependent status) occurs during the initial 18-month coverage period|
|Medicare Entitlement Rule||Extends 18-month period for spouses and children when the covered employee becomes entitled to Medicare within 18 months before the qualifying event|
COBRA coverage usually terminates at the end of the maximum coverage period. It is important to keep track of each QB’s period of coverage to be able to tell when coverage should be terminated. In addition, coverage can be terminated early for the following reasons:
- The QB fails to make timely premium payments;
- The employer ceases to make any group health plan available to any employee;
- The QB becomes covered under another group health plan;
- A disabled QB is determined not to be disabled; or
- For cause.
If coverage is to be terminated before the end of the maximum coverage period, notice to the QB is required.
Source: Zywave’s “Top 10 COBRA Mistakes” and “COBRA Common Questions – Administration” https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/legacy-files/ebsa/about-ebsa/our-activities/resource-center/publications/an-employees-guide-to-health-benefits-under-cobra.pdf